Lab09_QueuingDisciplines.pdf

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Przesyłam laborke która chciałem zrobić i wykonany przeze mnie (opisane jest jak dla przedszkolaków jak to zrobić, także nie było trudno zrobić, ale cos chyba skiepściłem :). Ps. Jesli ktoś miał jakis kontakt z opnetem prosze odpiszcie.


Laboratory

9

Queuing Disciplines
Order of Packet Transmission and Dropping
Objective
The objective of this lab is to examine the effect of different queuing disciplines on packet
delivery and delay for different services.

Overview
As part of the resource allocation mechanisms, each router must implement some
queuing discipline that governs how packets are buffered while waiting to be transmitted.
Various queuing disciplines can be used to control which packets get transmitted
(bandwidth allocation) and which packets get dropped (buffer space). The queuing
discipline also affects the latency experienced by a packet, by determining how long a
packet waits to be transmitted. Examples of the common queuing disciplines are first-infirst-out (FIFO) queuing, priority queuing (PQ), and weighted-fair queuing (WFQ).
The idea of FIFO queuing is that the first packet that arrives at a router is the first packet to
be transmitted. Given that the amount of buffer space at each router is finite, if a packet
arrives and the queue (buffer space) is full, then the router discards (drops) that packet.
This is done without regard to which flow the packet belongs to or how important the
packet is.
PQ is a simple variation of the basic FIFO queuing. The idea is to mark each packet with a
priority; the mark could be carried, for example, in the IP Type of Service (ToS) field. The
routers then implement multiple FIFO queues, one for each priority class. Within each
priority, packets are still managed in a FIFO manner. This queuing discipline allows highpriority packets to cut to the front of the line.
The idea of the fair queuing (FQ) discipline is to maintain a separate queue for each flow
currently being handled by the router. The router then services these queues in a roundrobin manner. WFQ allows a weight to be assigned to each flow (queue). This weight
effectively controls the percentage of the link's bandwidth each flow will get. We could use
ToS bits in the IP header to identify that weight.
In this lab you will set up a network that carries three applications: FTP, Video, and VoIP.
You will study how the choice of the queuing discipline in the routers can affect the
performance of the applications and the utilization of the network resources.

Procedure
Create a New Project
1. Start OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition => Choose New from the File menu.
2. Select Project and click OK => Name the project & lt; your initials & gt; _Queues, and
the scenario FIFO => Click OK.
3. In the Startup Wizard: Initial Topology dialog box, make sure that Create Empty
Scenario is selected => Click Next => Select Campus from the Network Scale
list => Click Next three times => Click OK.

Create and Configure the Network
Initialize the Network:
1. The Object Palette dialog box should be now on the top of your project space. If it
. Make sure that the internet_toolbox item is
is not there, open it by clicking
selected from the pull-down menu on the object palette.
The QoS Attribute
Config node defines
attribute configuration
details for protocols
supported at the IP layer.
These specifications can
be referenced by the
individual nodes using
symbolic names. It
defines different queuing
profiles such as FIFO,
WFQ, priority queuing,
custom queuing,
MWRR, MDRR, and
DWRR.

2. Add to the project workspace the following objects from the palette: Application
Config, Profile Config, QoS Attribute Config, five ethernet_wkstn, one
ethernet_server, and two ethernet4_slip8_gtwy routers.
3. Connect both routers together with a bidirectional PPP_DS1 link.
4. Connect the workstations and the server to the routers using bidirectional
10Base_T links as shown.
5. Rename the objects you added as shown and then save your project.

2

Configure the Applications:

Type of Service (ToS)
is assigned to the IP
packets. It represents a
session attribute that
allows packets to be
provided the appropriate
service in the IP queues.
Best-effort delivery
means that delivery of a
packet is attempted but
is not guaranteed.

PCM (Pulse Code
Modulation) is a
procedure used to
digitize speech before
transmitting it over the
network.

1. Right-click on the Applications node => Edit Attributes => Expand the
Application Definitions hierarchy => Set rows to 3 => Name the rows: FTP
Application, Video Application, and VoIP Application.
i. Go to the FTP Application row => Expand the Description hierarchy =>
Assign High Load to Ftp => Click on the High Load value and choose Edit
from the drop-down menu => Assign Constant(10) to Inter-Request Time =>
Assign Constant(1000000) to File Size. Keep the Type of Service (ToS) as
Best Effort (0).
ii. Go to the Video Application row => Expand the Description hierarchy =>
Assign Low Resolution Video to Video Conferencing => Click on the Low
Resolution Video value and choose Edit => Edit the value of the Type of
Service field (the Configure TOS/DSCP window appears) => From the dropdown menu, assign Streaming Multimedia (4) to ToS => Click OK twice.
iii. Go to the VoIP Application row => Expand the Description hierarchy =>
Assign PCM Quality Speech to Voice. If you edit it, you can see that the
ToS assigned to it is Interactive Voice (6).
2. Click OK and then save your project.

3

Configure the Profiles:
1. Right-click on the Profiles node => Edit Attributes => Expand the Profile
Configuration hierarchy => Set rows to 3.
i. Name and set the attributes of row 0 as shown:

ii. Name and set the attributes of row 1 as shown:

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iii. Name and set the attributes of row 2 as shown:

2. Click OK and then save your project.

Configure the Queues:
We will keep the default queuing profiles that are defined in our Queues object. It is
recommended that you check out the configuration of the FIFO, PQ, and WFQ
profiles.

Configure the Workstations and Servers:
1. Right-click on the FTP Client => Edit Attributes => Expand the Application:
Supported Profiles hierarchy => Set rows to 1 => Set Profile Name to FTP
Profile => Click OK.
2. Right-click on the Video Client => Edit Attributes => Expand the Application:
Supported Profiles hierarchy => Set rows to 1 => Set Profile Name to Video
Profile => Click OK.
3. Right-click on the VoIP West => Edit Attributes.
i. Expand the Application: Supported Profiles hierarchy => Set rows to 1 =>
Set Profile Name to VoIP Profile.
ii. Edit the Application: Supported Services value => Set rows to 1 => Set
Service Name to VoIP Application => Click OK twice.
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4. Right-click on the VoIP East => Edit Attributes.
i. Expand the Application: Supported Profiles hierarchy => Set rows to 1 =>
Set Profile Name to VoIP Profile.
ii. Edit the Application: Supported Services value => Set rows to 1 => Set
Service Name to VoIP Application => Click OK twice.
5. Right-click on the FTP Server => Edit Attributes => Edit the Application:
Supported Services value => Set rows to 1 => Set Service Name to FTP
Application => Click OK twice.
6. Right-click on the Video Server => Edit Attributes => Edit the Application:
Supported Services value => Set rows to 1 => Set Service Name to Video
Application => Click OK twice.
7. Save your project.

Configure the Routers:
1. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it => From the
Protocols, menu choose IP -> QoS -> Configure QoS.
2. Make sure the selected items are as shown in the following QoS Configuration
dialog box => Click OK.

Note: Since the Visualize QoS Configuration radio button is checked, the link is
colored based on the QoS scheme used (blue for FIFO).

3. Save your project.

6

Choose the Statistics
To test the performance of the applications defined in the network, we will collect one of
the many available statistics as follows:
1. Right-click anywhere in the project workspace and select Choose Individual
Statistics from the pop-up menu.
2. In the Choose Results dialog box, select the following global statistic:
Traffic Dropped: The
number of IP datagrams
dropped by all nodes in
the network across all IP
interfaces. The reasons
for dropping an IP
datagram can be any one
of the following:
- Insufficient space in the
queue.
- Maximum number of
hops exceeded by an IP
datagram.
- On nonrouting nodes,
a local router interface
was not found to be
used as the next hop.
- On routing nodes, the
route table lookup failed
to yield a route to the
destination..

3. Click OK and then save your project.

7

Configure the Simulation
Here we need to configure the duration of the simulation:
1. Click on

and the Configure Simulation window should appear.

2. Set the duration to be 150 seconds.
3. Click OK and then save your project.

Duplicate the Scenario
In the network we just created, we used the FIFO queuing discipline in the routers. To
analyze the effect of different queuing disciplines, we will create two more scenarios to test
the PQ and WFQ disciplines.
A. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name PQ => Click
OK.
1. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it => From the
Protocols menu choose IP -> QoS -> Configure QoS.
2. Make sure the selected items are as shown in the following QoS Configuration
dialog box => Click OK.

Note: Since the Visualize QoS Configuration radio button is checked, the link is
colored based on the QoS scheme used (orange for priority queuing).
3. Save your project.

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B. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name WFQ =>
Click OK.
1. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it => From the
Protocols menu choose IP -> QoS -> Configure QoS.
2. Make sure the selected items are as shown in the following QoS Configuration
dialog box => Click OK.

Note: Since the Visualize QoS Configuration radio button is checked, the link is
colored based on the QoS scheme used (green for WFQ).

3. Save your project.

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Run the Simulation
To run the simulation for the three scenarios simultaneously:
1. Go to the Scenarios menu => Select Manage Scenarios.
2. Change the values under the Results column to & lt; collect & gt; (or & lt; recollect & gt; )
for the three scenarios. Compare to the following figure.

3. Click OK to run the three simulations. Depending on the speed of your
processor, this may take several minutes to complete.
4. After the simulation completes the three runs, one for each scenario, click Close.
5. Save your project.

Note: Actual results will vary slightly based on the actual node positioning in the project.

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View the Results
To view and analyze the results:
1. Select Compare Results from the Results menu.
2. Select the IP Traffic Dropped statistic and click Show. The resulting graph
should resemble the one below. Note: The shown graph is the result of zooming
into the region of interest on the original graph.

3. Create the graph for Video Conferencing Traffic Received:

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4. Create the graph for Voice Traffic Received:

5. Create graphs for Voice Packet End-to-End Delay and Voice Packet Delay
Variation: (Note: the trace for WFQ is not shown on the following graphs
because it is overlapped by the trace of PQ.)

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Further Readings
-

The Differentiated Services
(www.ietf.org/rfc.html).

Field:

IETF

RFC

number

2474

Questions
1) Analyze the graphs we obtained and verify the overlap of the Voice Packet End-

to-End Delay and Voice Packet Delay Variation graphs. Compare the three
queuing disciplines and explain their effect on the performance of the three
applications.
2) In the implemented project, edit the Queues object and check the profiles

assigned to the FIFO, PQ, and WFQ disciplines. For each profile answer the
following questions:
a. How many queues are associated with each discipline?
b. In this lab, we used ToS to identify the priority and weight for the PQ and
WFQ disciplines respectively. What are the other parameters that can be
used to identify the priority and weight?
c.

In PQ, how are queues configured to serve different ToS values?

d. In WFQ, how are queues configured to serve different ToS values?
3) For all scenarios, choose the "queuing delay & lt; --" statistic for the link that

connects East Router and West Router. Rerun the simulation and generate the
graph that compares that queuing delay for all queuing disciplines (scenarios).
Analyze this graph.
Hint:
- The "queuing delay & lt; --" statistic is under the point-to-point hierarchy..

Lab Report
Prepare a report that follows the guidelines explained in Lab 0. The report should include
the answers to the above questions as well as the graphs you generated from the
simulation scenarios. Discuss the results you obtained and compare these results with
your expectations. Mention any anomalies or unexplained behaviors.

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