ment_rozdzial5.pdf

Re: MENTOR II Sprzenie zwrotne z napicia twornika

Poprosz o rozwinicie (Kolega nie rozumnie dalej e nie konfiguracja armaturowa nie jest stosowana do regulacji prdkoci silnika.) W zaczniku Rozdzia 5 dokumentacji MENTORA str. 27 2. Sprzenie zwrotne prdkociowe Pozdrawiam Jacek


0 HQWRU,,

3URFHGXU\REVXJRZHQDS
GX

352 & ('85 & lt; 2%6?8*2:(1$3 '8

 .ODZLDWXUDLZ\ZLHWODF]H

./$:,$785$ SDWU]U\V
3U]H]QDF]HQLHNODZLDWXU\
=DSRPRF NODZLDWXU\RSHUDWRU PR*H NRQILJXURZD
QDS
G RGSRZLHGQLR GR GDQHJR ]DVWRVRZDQLD RUD]
]PLHQLDQDZLHOHVSRVREyZMHJR]DFKRZDQLHVL

QS SRSU]H] ]PLDQ
F]DVyZ QDUDVWDQLD L VSDGNX
SU
GNRFL REURWRZHM SU]HVWDZLDQLH SR]LRPyZ
]DEH]SLHF]H LWS 1DVWDZ\ ]DEH]SLHF]H PR*QD
GRNRQ\ZD Z F]DVLH SUDF\ QDS
GX OXE Z VWDQLH
VSRF]\QNRZ\P-HOLQDVWDZDE
G]LHPLDDPLHMVFH
SRGF]DV SUDF\ WR QDS
G E
G]LH UHDJRZD
QDW\FKPLDVWQDZDUWRFLQRZRQDVWDZLRQH
 'RVWDUF]D SHQHM LQIRUPDFML R QDVWDZDFK L VWDQDFK
SUDF\ QDS
GX RUD] REV]HUQ\FK
LQIRUPDFML R
SU]\F]\QDFKMHJR]DWU]\PDQLDDZDU\MQHJR
'R QDVWDZ\ SDUDPHWUyZ VX*\  SU]\FLVNyZ SDWU] U\V
  'R Z\ERUX PHQX F]\OL SRZL]DQHM IXQNF\MQLH
JUXS\ SDUDPHWUyZ  VX*\ SU]\FLVN  OXE ! 1XPHU
Z\EUDQHJRPHQXSRMDZLDVL

Z RNQLH LQGHNVRZ\P QD OHZR RG SU]HFLQND

G]LHVL
WQHJR
'R Z\ERUX *GDQHJR SDUDPHWUX ] GDQHJR PHQX QDOH*\
X*\ SU]\FLVNX OXE  1XPHU WHJR SDUDPHWUX SRMDZL
VL
Z RNQLH LQGHNVRZ\P QD SUDZR RG SU]HFLQND
G]LHVL
WQHJR D ZDUWR SDUDPHWUX SRMDZL VL
Z RNQLH
GDQ\FK
: FHOX GRNRQDQLD ]PLDQ\ ZDUWRFL GDQHJR SDUDPHWUX
QDOH*\MHGQRNURWQLHQDFLVQSU]\FLVN02'(
=PLDQ
ZDUWRFL X]\VNXMH VL
QDFLVNDMF RGSRZLHGQLR
SU]\FLVN OXE  8]\VNDQLH V]\ENLHM ]PLDQ\ ZDUWRFL
Z\PDJD SU]\WU]\PDQLD WHJR SU]\FLVNX Z VWDQLH
ZFLQL
W\P
$E\ Z\M ] WU\EX QDVWDZF]HJR QDOH*\ SRQRZQLH
QDFLVQSU]\FLVN02'(
:SURZDG]L QRZH ZDUWRFL SDUDPHWUyZ GR SDPL
FL E\
SR]RVWD\ DNW\ZQH QD VWDH  Z SU]HFLZQ\P SU]\SDGNX
]RVWDQ XWUDFRQH SR Z\F]HQLX ]DVLODQLD QDS
GX
1DOH*\ Z W\P FHOX XVWDZL SDUDPHWU    L QDFLVQ
SU]\FLVN5(6(7

: & lt; :,(7/$ & =(
,QGHNV
F\IURZ\Z\ZLHWODF]GROQ\SRND]XMHQXPHUPHQX
QDOHZRRGNURSNL PDMFHMSRR*HQLHVWDH
LQXPHUSDUDPHWUXQDSUDZRRGNURSNL
'DQH
F\IURZ\ Z\ZLHWODF] JyUQ\ SRND]XMH ZDUWRFL
Z\EUDQHJR SDUDPHWUX =PLHQLDMF QXPHU\
SDUDPHWUyZ PR*QD QD QLP REVHUZRZD LFK
DNWXDOQHZDUWRFL
3DUDPHWU\ F\IURZH PDM ZDUWRFL ]DZDUWH Z
SU]HG]LDDFKRGGRRGGR
OXERGGR:DUWRFLSDUDPHWUyZZLFK
MHGQRVWNDFKSRGVWDZRZ\FK QS9ROW\REUPLQ

LWS SRGDQRZUR]G]QLQLHMV]HJR3RGU
F]QLND
:DUWRFLSDUDPHWUyZELWRZ\FKV Z\ZLHWODQHMDNR
 OXE  SR NWyU\FK QDVW
SXMH OLWHUND E 3LHUZV]
F\IU SDUDPHWUyZ PDMF\FK ZDUWRFL FDNRZLWH
 MHVW 
:VND(QLNLVWDWXVX
']LHZL
GLRGW\SX/(']QDMGXMF\FKVL
QDSUDZR
RGZ\ZLHWODF]\GRVWDUF]DDNWXDOL]RZDQHM
QDELH*FRLQIRUPDFMLRZDUXQNDFKSUDF\ QDS
GX L
XPR*OLZLDMHMNRQWURO
Z]URNRZ
ZLHFLGLRGD
,QIRUPDFMD

'ULYHUHDG\ 1DS
GMHVW]DF]RQ\LQLH
]DG]LDDR*DGQH]
]DEH]SLHF]H
'ULYHUHDG\ SXOVXMH
=DG]LDDRMHGQR]
]DEH]SLHF]H Z\F]DMF\FK
QDS
G
$ODUP SXOVXMH
1DS
G]QDMGXMHVL
ZVWDQLH
SU]HFL*HQLDOXERGE\ZDVL

FDNRZDQLHLORF]\QX,[W
=HURVSHHG
3U
GNRVLOQLNDMHVWPQLHMV]D
RG]DSURJUDPRZDQHJRSURJX
SU
GNRFL]HURZHM
5XQIRUZDUG
6LOQLNSUDFXMHQDSU
GNRFL
REURWRZHMGRSU]RGX
5XQUHYHUVH
6LOQLNSUDFXMHGRW\X
%ULGJH
$NW\ZQ\MHVWPRVWHN
W\U\VWRURZ\
%ULGJH
$NW\ZQ\MHVWPRVWHN
W\U\VWRURZ\ QLHRGQRVLVL

GRQDS
GyZ
MHGQRZLDUWNRZ\FK 
$WVSHHG
6LOQLNRVLJQ]DGDQ
SU
GNRREURWRZ
& XUUHQWOLPLW
1DS
GSUDFXMHQD
PDNV\PDOQ\PGRSXV]F]DOQ\P
SUG]LHREFL*HQLD
0HQX

3DUDPHWU

SU]\FLVNLQDVWDZF]H
SDUDPHWUyZ
SU]\FLVNLZ\ERUXPHQX
5\V.ODZLDWXUD
ZM
]DQJSU]HFLQHNG]LHVL WQ\]DVW
SXMHNURSND


SU]\SWXP 

$3$725 & 21752/6S]RR7RUX



3URFHGXU\REVXJRZHQDS
GX

0HQWRU,,

 & ]\QQRFL

L QDVWDZ\ SRSU]HG]DMFH
XUXFKRPLHQLHQDS
GX

=DLQVWDORZD QDS
G L SRGF]\ ]DVLODQLH VLHFLRZH RUD]
REZRG\VWHURZQLF]H]JRGQLH]UR]G]U\VL
3U]HG XUXFKRPLHQLHP QDS
GX QDOH*\ MHV]F]H Z\NRQD
OXEUR]ZD*\LFKZ\NRQDQLH SHZQHGDOV]HSRF]HQLDL
QDVWDZ\ QLHNWyUH ] QLFK MDNR RSF\MQH SRVXJXMF VL

SRQL*V]\P]HVWDZLHQLHP

& ]\QQR

2SLVF]\QQRFL

:VWDZL]ZLHUDN/.LQDVWDZL
F]QLNL
SNWSRQL*HM
-HOLZ\NRU]\VWDQRWDFKRPHWU\F]QH
VSU]
*HQLH]ZURWQHSU
GNRFLRZH
XVWDZLSRWHQFMRPHWUQDVWDZF]\ SNWSRQL*HM
1DVWDZLSDUDPHWU\URERF]H
QDS
GX]JRGQLH]MHJRDSOLNDFM SNW
'RVWURLREZyGVSU]
*HQLD
]ZURWQHJRSUGRZHJR
SDUDPHWU
VWU
'RVWURLS
WO
VSU]
*HQLD
]ZURWQHJRZREZRG]LH
Z]EXG]HQLD SDUDPHWU
VWU
$ORNRZDNRGEH]SLHF]HVWZD
RSFMD
SNW

=ZLHUDN/.L F]QLNL
=ZLHUDN /. L EORN F]QLNyZ ]QDMGXM VL
QD S\FLH 0'$% U\V   'RVW
SQH V SR RGM
FLX GROQHM SRNU\Z\
SU]HGQLHM U\V ,FKV\PEROHVFKHPDWRZHLSU]H]QDF]HQLH]DZDUWRZSRQL*V]\P]HVWDZLHQLX
6\PERO
6:$
6:+
6:*
6:)
6:'
6: &
6:%
/.

3U]H]QDF]HQLH
3RODU\]DFMDZHMORJLF]Q\FK1DS\FLH0'$%]QDMGXM VL
R]QDF]HQLD326L1(*GODSR]\FML
F]QLND6:$326RGSRZLDGDSR]LRPRZL9D1(*9
35=(''2.21$1,(0=0,$1 & lt; : & lt; ? & ==$6,/$1,(
9GR9
9GR9
GR9
9
9
9

~
~ ]DNUHV\QDSL
FLRZHVSU]]ZURWSU
GNPR*QDZ\EUDW\ONRMHGHQ
~
~
~ SU]HF]QLNLQDS]DVLODQLDHQNRGHUDPR*QDZ\EUDW\ONRMHGQR
~

]ZLHUDNZREZRG]LHNDOLEUDFMLSRWHQFMRPHWUXQDVWDZF]HJRWDFKRJHQHUDWRUD

3RWHQFMRPHWU59 SDWU]U\V

3RWHQFMRPHWU
=DVWRVRZDQLH

59
1DVWDZDVSU]
*HQLD]ZURWQHJR]WDFKRJHQHUDWRUD

3URFHGXUDQDVWDZ\
3U]\SRPRF\6:Z\EUDZDFLZ\]DNUHVQDSL
FLDWDFKRJHQHUDWRUD
=ZLHUDN/.XVWDZLZSRR*HQLH$'- $'-867QDVWDZD 
5HJXORZD59D* SDUDPHWU VSU]
*HQLH]ZURWQHSU
GNRFLRZH Z\QLHVLH




9PD[

JG]LH9PD[ QDSL
FLHWDFKRJHQHUDWRUDSU]\SU
GNRFL]QDPLRQRZHM

=ZLHUDN/.SU]HVWDZLZSRR*HQLH)% )(('%$ & .VSU]
*]ZURWQH LGRVWURL59
QDSU
GNRFLREURWRZHMVLOQLNDZSU]HG]LDOHSU
GNRFL]QDPLRQRZHM


$3$725 & 21752/6S]RR7RUX

0 HQWRU,,

3URFHGXU\REVXJRZHQDS
GX

8UXFKRPLHQLHQDS
GX

'$1(32'67$:2:(
3U]HGUR]SRF]
FLHPGRVWUDMDQLDQDS
GX0(1725,,GR
SUDF\ ] GDQ\P REFL*HQLHP QDOH*\ QDMSLHUZ ]DSR]QD
VL
]LQIRUPDFMDPL]DZDUW\PLQDWDEOLF]FH]QDPLRQRZHM
VLOQLND GDQ\PL SRGDZDQ\PL SU]H] SURGXFHQWD L
SRFKRG]F\PL ] LQQ\FK (UyGH 7XWDM SRGDQR ZDUWRFL
RGQRV]FH VL

GR SU]\NDGyZ SUDNW\F]Q\FK
SU]\WRF]RQ\FKQL*HM
3UG]QDPLRQRZ\WZRUQLND
$
1DSL
FLHWZRUQLND
9' &
3UGZ]EXG]HQLD
$
1DSL
FLHZ]EXG]HQLD
9' &
=QDPLRQRZDSU
GNRREURWRZD REUPLQ
0DNV\PDOQDSU
GNRREURWRZD
ZVWDQLHRGZ]EXG]HQLD
REUPLQ
0RGHOQDS
GX0(1725,,
0
6SRVyE GRVWDUF]DQLD GR QDS
GX GDQ\FK ]H VSU]
* ]ZU
SU
GN Uy*Q\SDWU]SU]\NDG\QL*HM
35= & lt; .?$' & lt; 35$.7 & lt; & =1(
35'7:251,.$

2JUDQLF]HQLHSU GRZH
: QDS
GDFK EH] IXQNFML KDPRZDQLD RG]\VNRZHJR
RJUDQLF]HQLH SUGRZH QDVWDZLD VL
SRSU]H] SDUDPHWU
 QDWRPLDVW Z QDS
GDFK ] KDPRZDQLHP
RG]\VNRZ\P  RGSRZLHGQLR SRSU]H] SDUDPHWU\  L

3UG ]QDPLRQRZ\ QDS
GX 0 Z\QRVL $ :DUWR
GRP\OQD   SDUDPHWUX  L   SR]ZDOD
XVWDZL PDNV\PDOQ\ SUG RJUDQLF]HQLD SUGRZHJR QD
ZDUWRUyZQ  SUGX ]QDPLRQRZHJR WM  [ 
$ $
3UG]QDPLRQRZ\Z\EUDQHJRVLOQLND Z\QRVL $ L MHOL
MHJR SU]HFL*DOQR SUGRZD Z\QRVL  FR MHVW
U]HF] QRUPDOQ  WR SUG PDNV\PDOQ\ PR*H RVLJD
ZDUWR$
1DS
GQDOH*\]DWHPRGSRZLHGQLRGRVWURLGRVLOQLNDDE\
]DSRELHF MHJR XV]NRG]HQLX 2EOLF]DP\ ZVSyF]\QQLN
GRVWURMF]\]UyZQDQLD

SUDG ]QDPLRQRZ\ VL OQ LND
SUDG ]QDPLRQRZ\ QDSHGX




 

*yUQDZDUWRSDUDPHWUX & XUUHQW/LPLW RJUDQLF]HQLH
SUGRZH  RGSRZLDGDMFD ZDUWRFL  SUGX
]QDPLRQRZHJRZ\QRVL=DWHPZ\PDJDQDQDVWDZD
WHJRSDUDPHWUXZ\QLHVLH
[ 
3DUDPHWU  QDOH*\ ZL
F XVWDZL QD ZDUWR 
-HOL QDS
G MHVW Z\SRVD*RQ\ Z IXQNFM
KDPRZDQLD
RG]\VNRZJRWRSDUDPHWU QDOH*\ UyZQLH* QDVWDZL
QDZDUWR
5R]G]LHOF]R SUGRZD
GRNDGQR VSU]
*HQLD
SUGRZHJRSU]\SWXP 

3UG]QDPLRQRZ\Z\EUDQHJRQDS
GXMHVW]Z\NOHZ\*V]\
RGSUGX]QDPLRQRZHJRVLOQLND5]HF]ZW\PE\QLHE\
]QDF]QLH Z\*V]\  VWRVXQHN SUGX VLOQLND GR SUGX
QDS
GXQLHSRZLQLHQE\PQLHMV]\QL*  RGSRZLDGDWR
QDVWDZLH  SDUDPHWUX RJUDQLF]HQLD SUGRZHJR 
5R]G]LHOF]R GRNDGQR  S
WOL VSU]
*HQLD ]ZURWQHJR
SU]\ QL*V]\FK ZDUWRFLDFK WHJR VWRVXQNX PR*H RND]D
VL
QLHZ\VWDUF]DMFD
2VWU]H*HQLH
3RSU]H] ]PLDQ
UH]\VWRUyZ REFL*DMF\FK SU]HNDGQLN
SUGRZ\ PR*QD X]\VND SHQ UR]G]LHOF]R REZRGX
RJUDQLF]HQLD SUGRZHJR DOH SRZVWDMH Z WHQ VSRVyE
QDS
G QLHW\SRZ\ QLHGRVW
SQ\ GR QRUPDOQHJR ]DNXSX
1LHEH]SLHF]HVWZR SROHJD QD W\P *H MHOL WDNL QDS
G
]RVWDQLH ]DVWSLRQ\ QDS
GHP VWDQGDUGRZ\P R W\P
VDP\P SUG]LH ]QDPLRQRZ\P WR QDS
G]DQ\ VLOQLN
E
G]LH V\VWHPDW\F]QLH QLV]F]RQ\ 0RG\ILNDFMH WHJR
URG]DMXSRZLQQ\E\]DZV]HVWDUDQQLHXGRNXPHQWRZDQH
D WDNL QLHW\SRZ\ QDS
G SRZLQLHQ E\ RGSRZLHGQLR Z
VSRVyEWUZD\R]QDNRZDQ\
3U]HFL *HQLHSU GRZH,[W
3UyJ SU]\ NWyU\P ]Z\NOH UR]SRF]\QD VL
FDNRZDQLH
LORF]\QX,[WZSDUDPHWU]HZ\QRVL *yUQD
JUDQLFDWHJRSDUDPHWUXUyZQDVL
LRGSRZLDGDRQD
ZDUWRFLWDNZL
F

SUyJ 
[  

:DUWRWSRGREQLHMDNZSU]\SDGNXRJUDQLF]HQLD
SUGRZHJRQDOH*\QDVWDZLXZ]JO
GQLDMFZDUWR
SUGX]QDPLRQRZHJRG\VSRQRZDQHJRVLOQLNDSRSU]H]
]DVWRVRZDQLHXSU]HGQLRZ\OLF]RQHJR GODRJUDQLF]HQLD
SUGRZHJR ZVSyF]\QQLND'ODWHJRIDNW\F]QD
ZDUWRQDVWDZ\GODWHMNRPELQDFMLQDS
GXLVLOQLND
Z\QLHVLH
 [ 
1DVWDZP\]DWHPSDUDPHWUQDZDUWR
'RVW
SGRSDUDPHWUyZ
'RVW
S GR RPyZLRQ\FK WX SDUDPHWUyZ L QDVWDZ\ LFK
ZDUWRFL X]\VNXMH VL
Z\ELHUDMF SDUDPHWU  L
ZSURZDG]DMF ZDUWR  3R]ZDOD WR X]\VND GRVW
S
GRZV]\VWNLFK*GDQ\FKSDUDPHWUyZ
635= )(1,(=:5271(35 '.2 & ,2:(

 6SU]
*HQLH ]ZURWQH SU
GNRFLRZH RG QDSL
FLD
WZRUQLND
6SU]
*HQLH WR XDNW\ZQLDP\ QDVWDZLDMF SDUDPHWU 
QDZDUWR
: SUDNW\FH GR]ZDOD VL
QDVWDZL ZDUWR QLHFR Z\*V]
R  OXE   RG ]QDPLRQRZHJR QDSL
FLD WZRUQLND QS
GOD QDSL
FLD WZRUQLND UyZQHJR 9 PR*QD SDUDPHWU
QDVWDZLQDZDUWROXE
$QDORJRZHVSU]
*HQLH]ZURWQHSU
GNRFLRZH
: SU]\SDGNX VSU]
*HQLD ]ZURWQHJR ] WDFKRJHQHUDWRUD
SDUDPHWU  QDOH*\ QDVWDZL QD ZDUWR  QDVWDZD
GRP\OQD 

$3$725 & 21752/6S]RR7RUX



3URFHGXU\REVXJRZHQDS
GX
: SU]\SDGNX VSU]
*HQLD DQDORJRZHJR GRP\OQH
ZDUWRFLVNDGRZHMSURSRUFMRQDOQHMLFDNXMFHM
Z S
WOL VSU]
*HQLD SU
GNRFLRZHJR ]Z\NOH V
Z\VWDUF]DMFH
1DWRPLDVW Z SU]\SDGNX ]DVWRVRZDQLD HQNRGHUD
WDFKRPHWUXLPSXOVRZHJR XG]LDF]RQyZW\SX
3 L , QDOH*\ SRF]WNRZR QDVWDZL QD QDVW
SXMFH
ZDUWRFL
 
 
=DOH*QLH RG NRQNUHWQHJR ]DVWRVRZDQLD QDS
GX L
]DFKRZDQLD VL
MHJR REFL*HQLD PR*H ]DM SRWU]HED
GRNRQDQLD RGSRZLHGQLHM NRUHNW\ W\FK QDVWDZ Z FHOX
X]\VNDQLD RSW\PDOQ\FK ZDVQRFL G\QDPLF]Q\FK L
PDHJRXFK\EXSU
GNRFLREURWRZHM
6SU]
*HQLH]ZURWQHSU
GNRFLRZH] HQNRGHUHP
3U]\ W\P URG]DMX VSU]
*HQLD ZDUWR SDUDPHWUX 
QDOH*\ XVWDZL QD  3DUDPHWU  GRSDVRZDQLD
HQNRGHUD QDOH*\ XVWDZL RGSRZLHGQLR GR LORFL
LPSXOVyZ HQNRGHUD SU]\SDGDMF\FK QD MHGHQ REUyW L
]DR*RQHM SU
GNRFL PDNV\PDOQHM VLOQLND Z REUPLQ
NRU]\VWDMF]SRQL*V]HJRUyZQDQLD


 [ 
335 OLF]ED LPSXOVRZ  REU [ SUHGN  PDNV REU  PLQ

3U]\NDG
LORLPSXOVyZHQNRGHUDQDMHGHQREUyW 335  
 PDNV\PDOQD SU
GNR REURWRZD VLOQLND UyZQD 
REUPLQ
 PDNV\PDOQD *GDQD SU
GNR REURWRZD VLOQLND UyZQD
REUPLQ


[

[

8ZDJD VWRVXMF HQNRGHU GR VSU]
*HQLD ]ZURWQHJR
SU
GNRFLRZHJR QDOH*\ UR]ZD*\ NLOND F]\QQLNyZ
GRGDWNRZ\FK 3RZLQLHQ WR E\ HQNRGHU GZXNDQDRZ\
W\SX NZDGUDWXURZHJR ] OLQLRZ\PL GUDMZHUDPL
Z\MFLRZ\PL Z\NRU]\VWXMF\ GUDMZHU\  OXE
 &   =DVLODQLH ZHZQ
WU]QH HQNRGHUD ] ]DVLODF]D
]QDMGXMFHJR VL
Z QDS
G]LH 0(1725 ,, SR]ZDOD
XVWDZLQDSL
FLH]DVLODQLDQDZDUWROXE9SU]\
SRPRF\ SU]HF]QLND W\SX ',3 ]DPRQWRZDQHJR QD
S\FLH 0'$% QDS
GX SDWU] U\V  QD VWU  
2EFL*DOQRWHJR]DVLODF]DZ\QRVLP$LQLHMHVWRQ
L]RORZDQ\ RG QDS
GX 1D Z\VWDMF\FK NRNDFK
PRQWD*RZ\FK ]QDMGXMF\FK VL
Z GROQ\P OHZ\P URJX
S\W\REZRGXGUXNRZDQHJR U\V QDOH*\]DPRQWRZD
UH]\VWRU\ ]DP\NDMFH OLQL
WUDQVPLV\MQ 5H]\VWRU\ WH
]DSRELHJDM RGELFLRP V\JQDyZ L SU]HGRVWDZDQLX VL

]DNyFH GRRGELRUQLNDUy*QLFRZHJR
ZQDS
G]LH
35':=%8'=(1,$
1DMSLHUZ QDOH*\ XDNW\ZQL UHJXODWRU Z]EXG]HQLD DQJ
)LHOG & RQWUROOHU  : W\P FHOX SDUDPHWU  QDOH*\
XVWDZLQDZDUWR



0HQWRU,,
=DNUHVSU GXZ]EXG]HQLD
1DS
G 0(1725 ,, MHVW Z\SRVD*RQ\ Z UHJXODWRU
REZRGXZ]EXG]HQLDRSUG]LHPDNV\PDOQ\PUyZQ\P
OXE $ SDWU] WDEHOD Z RSLVLH SDUDPHWUX   :
QLQLHMV]\P SU]\NDG]LH PDNV\PDOQ\ SUG Z]EXG]HQLD
Z\QRVL $ -HVW WR ZDUWR ZL
NV]D RG $ L
PQLHMV]DRG$1DOH*\]DWHPSDUDPHWUQDVWDZL
QDZDUWR

0DNV\PDOQ\SU GZ]EXG]HQLD
:DUWR PDNV\PDOQD SDUDPHWUX  RNUHODMFHJR
PDNV\PDOQ\ SUG Z]EXG]HQLD Z\QRVL  :DUWR
PDNV\PDOQD SUGX Z]EXG]HQLD SU]\M
WD Z QLQLHMV]\P
SU]\NDG]LH Z\QRVL $ =DWHP QDVWDZD SDUDPHWUX
Z\QLND]UyZQDQLD

PDNV\PD OQ \ SUDG Z]EXG]HQLD VL OQ LND
[  
 
]DNUHV SUDGX Z]EXG]HQLD
2GZ]EXG]DQLH
3RQLHZD* Z W\P SU]\NDG]LH RGZ]EXG]DQLH QLH MHVW
Z\NRU]\VW\ZDQH L SRQLHZD* GRP\OQD ZDUWR WHJR
SDUDPHWUX Z\QRVL  SU]\ ZDUWRFL PDNV\PDOQHM
UyZQHM ZL
FIXQNFM
W QDOH*\
]GHDNW\ZRZD1DVWDZP\]DWHP 
6]F]HJy\ REOLF]DQLD L QDVWDZ IXQNFML RGZ]EXG]DQLD
VLOQLNDSRGDQRZSDUQL*HM

:]EXG]HQLHRV]F]
GQRFLRZH
'OD ]DVWRVRZD Z NWyU\FK SU]HZLGXMH VL
RNUHV\
SR]RVWDZDQLD QDS
GX QD ]HURZHM SU
GNRFL REURWRZHM
EH]REFL*HQLD VLOQLN]DWU]\PDQ\DOHQDS
GSR]RVWDMHZ
VWDQLH JRWRZRFL GR SUDF\  SU]HZLG]LDQR W]Z
Z]EXG]HQLHRV]F]
GQRFLRZH VLOQLND 8*\WNRZQLN PR*H
GRNRQD RGSRZLHGQLHM QDVWDZ\ SDUDPHWUX 
RGSRZLHG]LDOQHJR ]D REQL*HQLH ZDUWRFL SUGX
Z]EXG]HQLD RUD] SDUDPHWUX  RGSRZLHG]LDOQHJR ]D
F]DVSRNWyU\PWDUHGXNFMDSUGXQDVWSL
$E\   Z\NRU]\VWD   IXQNFM

Z]EXG]HQLD
RV]F]
GQRFLRZHJR QDOH*\ GRNRQD QDVW
SXMF\FK
QDVWDZ
 SDUDPHWU DNW\ZDFMDIXQNFMLRGOLF]DQLDF]DVX
XVWDZLQDZDUWR
 QDVWDZLRV]F]
GQRFLRZ\SUGZ]EXG]HQLD
]DNDGDMF*HSUGRV]F]
GQRFLRZ\E
G]LHUyZQ\
$ZDUWRNRQLHF]QHMQDVWDZ\PR*QDREOLF]\]
UyZQDQLD
SUDG Z]EXG]HQLD REQL]RQ\


ZDUWRVF PDNV  SUDGX Z]EXG]HQLD 
3DUDPHWUQDVWDZLDP\ZL
FQDZDUWR
(IHNWGRNRQDQ\FKQDVWDZ PR*QD VSUDZG]L QDVWDZLDMF
SDUDPHWU  RGOLF]DQLH F]DVX  QD V    
=GHDNW\ZRZD QDS
G L REVHUZRZD ZDUWR SUGX
Z]EXG]HQLD SRSU]H] SDUDPHWU  'ZLH VHNXQG\ SR
GHDNW\ZDFML QDS
GX SDUDPHWU  Z\ND*H REQL*HQLH
ZDUWRFLSU]\M
WHMGODSDUDPHWUX
8ZDJDZHZQ
WU]Q\UHJXODWRUZ]EXG]HQLD
-HOLQDS
G0(1725,,MHVWZ\SRVD*RQ\ZZHZQ
WU]Q\
UHJXODWRU Z]EXG]HQLD WR IXQNFMD Z]EXG]HQLD

$3$725 & 21752/6S]RR7RUX

0 HQWRU,,

3URFHGXU\REVXJRZHQDS
GX

RV]F]
GQRFLRZHJR ]QDMGXMH VL
SRG DXWRPDW\F]Q
NRQWURO SURJUDPX L *DGHQ ]HZQ
WU]Q\ SU]HF]QLN
=$?: & lt; ? U\V  L  QD VWU  L   QLH MHVW
SRWU]HEQ\ 3RPL
G]\ ]DFLVNL / L / QDOH*\ ZVWDZL
]ZLHUDN]SU]HZRGXRRGSRZLHGQLRGREUDQ\PSU]HNURMX
]DOH*Q\PRGSUGXZ]EXG]HQLD

2':=%8'=$1,(
: QDV]\P SU]\NDG]LH PDNV\PDOQH QDSL
FLH
Z]EXG]HQLD PD ZDUWR 9 ' &  -HOL ]DFKRG]L
SRWU]HED RGZ]EXG]DQLD VLOQLND WR W\SRZD QDVWDZD VL\
SU]HFLZHOHNWURPRWRU\F]QHMZSDUDPHWU]HSRZLQQD
E\R9QL*V]DRGZDUWRFLPDNV\PDOQHMQDSL
FLD
WZRUQLND 1DVWDZP\ ]DWHP SDUDPHWU  QD ZDUWR
 3U]\ WDN XVWDZLRQ\P QDSL
FLX WZRUQLND SUG
Z]EXG]HQLD ]DF]QLH VWRSQLRZR REQL*D VL
GR ZDUWRFL
XVWDZLRQHM Z SDUDPHWU]H  3RQLHZD* QDVWDZD
SDUDPHWUX  VSU]
*HQLH SUGRZH Z REZRG]LH
Z]EXG]HQLD  Z\QRVL Z QDV]\P SU]\NDG]LH  QD
]DNUHVLH $  WR ZDUWRFL PLQLPDOQHM SUGX Z]EXG]HQLD
E
G]LH RGSRZLDGD RNUHORQ\ SURFHQW WHM QDVWDZ\
]Dy*P\*HE
G]LHWR:WDNLPSU]\SDGNX

ZDUWRVF ]DOR]RQD


JRUQD JUDQLFD QDVWDZ\ 

D QDVWDZD PLQLPDOQHM ZDUWRFL SUGX Z]EXG]HQLD Z
SDUDPHWU]HE
G]LH
[ 
8ZDJD GR SUDZLGRZHM SUDF\ XNDGX RGZ]EXG]DQLD
VLOQLND NRQLHF]QH MHVW SU
GNRFLRZH VSU]
*HQLH ]ZURWQH
VSU]
*HQLH]ZURWQHRGQDSL
FLDWZRUQLNDQLHQDGDMHVL

GR WHJR FHOX  : ]ZL]NX ] W\P GOD VSU]
*H ]
WDFKRJHQHUDWRUD $ &  OXE ' &  SDUDPHWU  QDOH*\
QDVWDZL QD  D SDUDPHWU  VNDORZDQLD SU
GNRFL 
QD ZDUWR  RGSRZLDGDMF
PDNV\PDOQHM
GRSXV]F]DOQHM SU
GNRFL REURWRZHM VLOQLND NWyUD Z
UR]SDWU\ZDQ\P SU]\NDG]LH Z\QRVL  REUPLQ
3DUDPHWU  E
G]LH ZWHG\ RGF]\W\ZD SUDZLGRZR
IDNW\F]QH ZDUWRFL SU
GNRFL REURWRZHM VLOQLND -HOL Z
VSU]
*HQL ]ZURWQ\P ]DVWRVRZDQR HQNRGHU WR SDUDPHWU
QDOH*\QDVWDZLQDDSDUDPHWUVNDORZDQLD
HQNRGHUD E
G]LH Z\PDJD UyZQLH* RGSRZLHGQLHM
QDVWDZ\ :DUWR QDVWDZ\ SDUDPHWUX  E
G]LH
]DOH*DDRG
PDNV\PDOQHMZ\PDJDQHMSU
GNRFLREURWRZHMVLOQLND
 LORFL LPSXOVyZ ] HQNRGHUD SU]\SDGDMF\FK QD MHGHQ
REUyW
 352 & ('85$ 6$026752-(1,$ 3 7/,
635= )(1,$35'2:(*2
8ZDJD  SURFHGXUD RSLVDQD QL*HM MHVW RSF\MQD GOD
ZL
NV]RFL DSOLNDFML W\SRZ\FK QLH MHVW Z\PDJDQD
-HGQDN*H WDP JG]LH SRWU]HEQH V RSW\PDOQH ZDVQRFL
G\QDPLF]QH QDS
GX S
WOD SUGRZD E
GFD QDMEDUG]LHM
ZHZQ
WU]Q S
WO REZRGX VWHURZDQLD PXVL E\ WDN
XVWDZLRQDE\XPR*OLZLSRSUDZQHG]LDDQLH]HZQ
WU]QHM
S
WOL VWHURZDQLD WDNLHM QS MDN S
WOD VSU]
*HQLD
SU
GNRFLRZHJR  :DVQRFL G\QDPLF]QH S
WOL SUGRZHM

V Z ]DVDG]LH IXQNFM SDUDPHWUyZ HOHNWU\F]Q\FK
]DVWRVRZDQHJR VLOQLND 1DS
G 0(1725 ,, SRVLDGD
ZEXGRZDQ IXQNFM
VDPRVWURMHQLD S
WOL SUGRZHM
1DMSLHUZQDOH*\]DEORNRZDZLUQLNVLOQLNDOXERGF]\
MHJR Z]EXG]HQLH DE\ SU]H] WZRUQLN SRS\Q SUG
XPR*OLZLDMF\ RNUHOHQLH SDUDPHWUyZ HOHNWU\F]Q\FK
WZRUQLND : F]DVLH SURFHGXU\ VDPR VWURMHQLD ZLUQLN
VLOQLND QLH PR*H VL
REUDFD ]Z\NOH SR RGF]HQLX
Z]EXG]HQLD ZLUQLN VLOQLND ERF]QLNRZHJR SR]RVWDMH Z
VSRF]\QNX 
1DS
G\0(1725,,ZSU]HG]LDOHZLHONRFLRG0GR
0SRVLDGDM ZEXGRZDQ\ UHJXODWRU Z]EXG]HQLD L QLH
Z\PDJDM UR]ZLHUDQLDREZRGXZ]EXG]HQLD
3URFHGXUDVDPRVWURMHQLDSU]HELHJDQDVW
SXMFR
:F]\]DVLODQLHQDS
GX
=HZ]JO
GyZEH]SLHF]HVWZDSDUDPHWUXVWDZLQD

 3DUDPHWUXVWDZLQD
8DNW\ZQLQDS
GSU]H]SRGF]HQLH]DFLVNX7%
GR9 SU]HGDNW\ZDFM QDS
GPXVLSR]RVWDZDZ
VWDQLHQLHDNW\ZQ\P 
3U]HGZ\F]HQLHPQDS
GXZ\NRQDSURFHGXU

ZSURZDG]HQLDZDUWRFLSDUDPHWUyZGRSDPL
FL
SDWU]RSLVSURFHGXU\QDVWU 
3URFHGXUDVDPRVWURMHQLDPDZS\ZQDSDUDPHWU\


3$5$0(75 & lt; 
67$12:,21(
35=(=
8) & lt; 7.2:1,.$
0LPR *H QL*HM RSLVDQH QDVWDZ\ SDUDPHWUyZ PDM
FKDUDNWHU RSF\MQ\ WR GREU]H MHVW GRNRQD LFK SRQLHZD*
SR]ZDOD WR X*\WNRZQLNRZL QD REVHUZDFM
Uy*Q\FK
ZDUWRFLNU\W\F]Q\FKGODQDS
GX
EH] SRWU]HE\ SU]HV]XNLZDQLD Z W\P FHOX NLONX PHQX
:V]\VWNLHRQHV ]JUXSRZDQHZ0HQX
1U
:DFLZR 1DVWDZD
'RVW
S
SDUDPHWUX
QDS
GX
SRSU]H]

QDSL
FLH


WZRUQLND

SUG


WZRUQLND

SU
GNREU


VLOQLND

]DGDZDQLH


SU
GNREU

QDSL
FLH


]DVLODQLD
x

EH]SRUHGQL RGF]\W SUGX WZRUQLND MHVW PR OLZ\
*
SRSU]H]SDUDPHWU  SRG ZDUXQNLHP H SDUDPHWU
*
 ]RVWD QDVWDZLRQ\ ] XZ]JO GQLHQLHP


RGSRZLHGQLHJR ZVSyF]\QQLND VNDOL :\NRU]\VWXMF

GOD QDS
GX 0 WH VDPH GDQH FR SRSU]HGQLR PDP\
GRNRQD QDVWDZ\  RG $ =DWHP QDVWDZD
SDUDPHWUXE
G]LHUyZQD

3U]HG Z\F]HQLHP QDS
GX QDOH*\ Z\NRQD
SURFHGXU
ZSURZDG]HQLD QDVWDZ GR SDPL
FL
SRGREQLH MDN Z SU]\SDGNX SDUDPHWUyZ
NRQILJXUXMF\FKVLOQLNLQDS
G SDWU]VWU

$3$725 & 21752/6S]RR7RUX




Pobierz plik - link do postu
TME logo Szukaj w ofercie
Zamknij 
Wyszukaj w ofercie 200 tys. produktw TME
TME Logo